The Death of Tyre Nichols (2023)

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michael barbaro

From The New York Times, I’m Michael Barbaro. This is The Daily.

Today, what really happened to Tyre Nichols, who died after he was violently beaten by police in Memphis? An encounter captured in a series of videos released over the weekend. My colleague, Southern Bureau Chief Rick Rojas, is in Memphis, where he’s been piecing together the story.

It’s Monday, January 30th.

Rick, tell us about Tyre Nichols, the man at the center of this story.

rick rojas

So Tyre Nichols was a 29-year-old man who lived in Memphis. He was Black, and his mother described him as living a kind of simple, pleasant life. Every day, like clockwork, he would wake up at 8:30, and he would go to the same Starbucks and get the same drink. He had been working for about nine months at a FedEx facility in this city. And he seemed to be doing well on all accounts.

He loved to skateboard, and he was a regular at Shelby Farms, which is this really sprawling park just outside Memphis. He’d go almost every day, either for skating or to photograph the sunset. He was an amateur photographer. And he had a four-year-old son. And he just seemed like someone who was like a typical 29-year-old who was finding his way and building a life for himself.

And so I think for his family, that’s what has made this all the more staggering. They didn’t see him as someone who would have any kind of encounter with the police.

michael barbaro

Right. Well, I want to talk about that encounter. We, of course, now have a video of it. But for several weeks, we didn’t. And there was a fair bit of mystery around what exactly had happened. So I’m wondering, Rick, if you could take us back to what first happened to Tyre Nichols and walk us through how this all unfolded as we experienced it in real time.

rick rojas

Yeah. This case has been shrouded in a lot of mystery before the video came out. At the beginning, what we know came from a police statement.

So on January 7th, Tyre Nichols gets pulled over by the police in the southeastern corner of the city. It was around 8:30 PM. And it was on suspicion of reckless driving.

michael barbaro


rick rojas

And at that point, there was some sort of physical confrontation between Tyre Nichols and those officers. He then took off on foot. The officers caught up with them, and then there was a second confrontation. And somewhere during the course of those confrontations, he sustained the level of injury that was so severe that he needed to be hospitalized. He was unconscious for three days, and then he died on January 10th.

michael barbaro

So in the immediate aftermath, all we know is that a pretty routine-sounding traffic stop has ended in Tyre Nichols’ death. And so of course, the question becomes, did these officers use excessive force? So what happens in the next few days?

rick rojas

So multiple investigations are launched. First, there’s an internal inquiry by the Memphis Police Department. And then the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation was called in to look at the basics of the case to try to understand whether or not the officers had used excessive force and whether that use of force reached a criminal level. And then after that, federal prosecutors also said that they would be launching a civil rights investigation into what happened as well.

michael barbaro

Got it. So everyone in law enforcement is taking this pretty seriously.

rick rojas

Yes. And in a way to acknowledge that, city officials announced pretty early on that they wanted to be transparent, and they plan to release whatever video footage they collected as part of their investigation to show the public what happened during that traffic stop.

s then on January 20th, 10 days after Tyre Nichols died, the city announced that the internal investigation by the Memphis Police Department had been wrapped up, and they fired five police officers who had been at the scene that night. They said that they had used excessive force. They said that they had failed in their duty to intervene and failed in their duty to render aid.

michael barbaro

And in this moment, Rick, when these five officers are fired, what do we learn about them?

rick rojas

So we learned a few things. We learned that they’re all Black. We learned that they’re all in their 20s to early 30s. So they’re all relatively new to the force, having spent only a few years in the Department. They all joined between 2017 and 2020. And then we also learned that they’re part of a specialized group of officers called the Scorpion Unit. And it’s a group that patrols high crime areas of the city where there’s been persistent struggles with violence.

And it was created in 2021 at a time when the murder rate was climbing, when anxiety over public safety was escalating. And this was kind of cast as a way to directly combat that, by putting these officers out into the streets in these neighborhoods.

michael barbaro

So at this point, what we know is that these five officers are part of an elite unit that seems kind of specially empowered to crack down on crime in Memphis. And very notably, what we know is that all five of them are Black and are accused of ending the life of a Black man.

rick rojas

Yes. And at this point, the family launched this effort to really push for as they see it getting justice for Tyre. And the first part of that is just seeing this video, trying to understand how this traffic stop went from what seemed like a routine traffic stop and became something so much worse. And so finally, last Monday, Tyre Nichols’ family and their lawyers, they had the chance to finally see the footage for themselves.

archived recording (ben crump)

Thank you so much for allowing us to be in your cathedral to address this injustice.

(Video) Graphic videos show moments that led to Tyre Nichols’ death

rick rojas

And afterwards, they had a press conference. And that’s where we were able to hear some of the first descriptions of what the cameras were able to capture.

archived recording (ben crump)

What we can tell you about the video is it is appalling. It is deplorable. It is heinous. And it’s very troublesome on every level.

rick rojas

The family’s attorney, Ben Crump, who is a very prominent civil rights lawyer, who represented the family of George Floyd, just talked about how troubling the footage was.

archived recording (ben crump)

You know, regrettably, it reminded us of Rodney King video. Regrettably. And unlike Rodney King, Tyre didn’t survive.

archived recording (antonio romanucci)

Let me say this about Tyre, about what we saw in that video.

rick rojas

And then one of the family’s other lawyers described Tyre Nichols.

archived recording (antonio romanucci)

He was a human pinata for those police officers. It was an unadulterated, unabashed non-stop beating of this young boy for 3 minutes.

archived recording (rowvaughn wells)

Oh, my God.

rick rojas

And throughout all of this, you could just hear his mother crying in the background.

archived recording (rowvaughn wells)

My name is RowVaughn Well, and I’m Tyre’s mother.

My son, I know everybody’s mother say they had a good son. Everybody’s son is good. But my son, he actually was a good boy.

rick rojas

She couldn’t make it through the first minute of the video because of just how painful it was to witness that happening to her son.

archived recording (rowvaughn wells)

I don’t have any feelings right now. I don’t even know how to — I don’t know anything right now. All I know is my son Tyre is not here with me anymore. He will never walk through that door again. All my son was trying to do was get home.

michael barbaro

So at this point, Memphis is learning about this video through the filter of a horrified family.

rick rojas

Yes. And then last Thursday, just a few days after the family was able to see the video, local prosecutors announced that the five officers had been charged with second degree murder.

michael barbaro


rick rojas

Among other felonies. And with this announcement, we just hear this outpouring of condemnation.

archived recording (steve mulroy)

While each of the five individuals played a different role in the incident in question,

rick rojas

From the district attorney.

archived recording (steve mulroy)

They are all responsible in the death of Tyre Nichols.

rick rojas

From the Memphis Police chief.

archived recording (cerelyn davis)

This incident was heinous, reckless, and inhumane.

rick rojas

From the head of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigations.

archived recording (david rausch)

Let me be clear. What happened here does not at all reflect proper policing. This was wrong. This was criminal.

(Video) What to know about the death of Tyre Nichols

archived recording (cerelyn davis)

This is not just a professional failing. This is a failing of basic humanity toward another individual.

rick rojas

And we hear from them that this was a violation of human rights, and it was a crime.

archived recording (steve mulroy)

We all want the same thing. We want justice for Tyre Nichols.

rick rojas

And yet, with all of these descriptions, we still don’t know exactly what happened. We don’t know, why was Tyre Nichols stopped in the first place? How did he react when the officers stopped him? Why did he flee on foot? And what did the officers do to Tyre? I mean, we hear that there’s been excessive use of force, but what does that actually mean? And then we don’t know how long it takes for medical personnel to treat him, and we don’t know how long it takes before he is taken to a hospital. There’s just so many questions that are still unanswered at this point.

michael barbaro

Right. Because so far, what’s on this video is only really being filtered through, first, the family, now these city officials, all of whom are saying that they’re horrified. But the public has yet to see any of the video itself.

rick rojas

Exactly. And so on the same day that the charges are announced against the officers, the city says that the video will finally be released to the public sometime on Friday evening.

And so not only are these officials coming out and saying that they’re horrified by the content of the video. They also really express deep concern about the kind of reaction it will provoke in the city.

The police chief, various elected officials, activists, even Mr. Nichols’ own mother comes out and just implores the community to not let the anger or outrage that they really worry about them having after seeing this, they don’t want that to turn into something destructive.

So the sense of anticipation and really, the sense of anxiety are really building in Memphis now. After-school activities have been closed across the city. Extra law enforcement from around the state has been summoned to Memphis to be on standby. So they’re prepared to see what happens when people in this city finally have the chance to see this for themselves.

And on Friday night, as promised, the video was released.

michael barbaro

We’ll be right back.

So Rick, walk us through what we see once this video footage is finally released on Friday night.

rick rojas

So it ends up actually being four separate videos that are all posted online, and it adds up to roughly an hour of footage. It’s a combination of footage from body cameras, as well as stationary footage from police cameras that are posted around the neighborhood. And so there’s just a feed from one of those cameras. And it starts in the middle of Tyre Nichols being pulled over. So we never actually see the beginning of the stop.

michael barbaro

God. It’s so while the police have been saying that this was a case of reckless driving, we don’t actually see that or hear the police telling Tyre Nichols that they’re pulling him over for that?

rick rojas

Right. Exactly. So the whole reason this all unfolded, like we still don’t the answer to that question. And so the body camera is on. And suddenly, the audio kicks in.

archived recording 1

Move your motherfucking ass.

archived recording 2

Move your side. Blow the fuck over.

rick rojas

And we just see his car in the middle of an intersection at a traffic light. And we can see the officers. They’re running towards his car. Their guns are drawn. They’re cursing at them they’re telling him to get out and get on the ground.

archived recording (tyre nichols)

You guys are really doing a lot right now. Stop.

archived recording 1

Lay down.

archived recording (tyre nichols)

I’m just trying to go home.

rick rojas

And at one point, he’s just lying on the ground, pleading. Like I’m just trying to go home. An officer tries to pepper spray him. And at that point, he runs.

The officer tried to tase him, but he gets away. And so about 8 minutes later,

archived recording 3

We see him. We’re on foot pursuit, southbound on Ross.

(Video) Tyre Nichols: A detailed visual timeline of the investigation into his death | ABC News

rick rojas

The officers catch up to him in a residential area. And he’s tackled to the ground.

archived recording 3

You wanna be sprayed again?

rick rojas

The officers pepper spray him. They hit and kick him. You can see him being kicked in the head.

archived recording 3

[INAUDIBLE] the fuck out you [INAUDIBLE] your fucking hands.

rick rojas

And you can see him being hit with batons. Part of the reason that we’re able to see this is not just because it’s the up close kind of shaky body camera footage. We actually have this bird’s eye view from the street camera that just is able to capture everything as it’s happening from above.

michael barbaro


rick rojas

At one point, they stand him up. And an officer punches him repeatedly. The beating lasts about 3 minutes. And throughout it, you can just hear his cries of anguish. At one point, you can hear him crying out for his mom. He says mom, mom, mom. And her home is maybe 100 yards away.

michael barbaro

Right. It’s very difficult footage to watch.

rick rojas

It is. It’s a lot to take in. Eventually, the officers prop him up against the police car. He slumps over.

archived recording 4

Look, we got him out of the car. Was like, hey, brother, you good? Motherfucker swung. Wild [INAUDIBLE] hit me.

archived recording 5

He reached for my gun. Slammed into the car and we were on from there. He nearly had his hand on my gun. Like the mo fo was on there.

rick rojas

And you can hear officers saying that he reached for one of their guns, or he tried to take a swing at them. But those are things that we actually don’t see in the video. I mean, other than him running after the stop, like we don’t really see any resistance. There’s really no evidence that we can see from the videos of him fighting back.

archived recording 6

That motherfucker high.

archived recording 4

He high. He high as a mother.

They also said that they thought that he was high, but there was no real evidence it seemed so far to back that up.

michael barbaro

So the officers appear at a couple of different moments here to be trying to justify their actions, even though the footage doesn’t really support the actions.

rick rojas

Right. And then a couple of minutes later, you have emergency responders arrive at the scene. There are two medics from the Fire Department. They look at Nichols, but you can see they’re not administering any care.

michael barbaro

Right. I remember watching it and kind of counting the number of people on the scene. It’s upwards of 10. None of whom appear to be doing anything to attend to Tyre Nichols.

rick rojas

Right. He’s just sitting by that car for more than 24 minutes before an ambulance arrives. And occasionally, Nichols slumps over by the car, and they prop him up.

michael barbaro

So thinking back to those questions, Rick, that we all had before the footage was released, it does seem like a lot of them were answered in these videos because we see these officers really aggressively approach Tyre Nichols’ vehicle, pull him to the ground. He runs. We don’t know why, but he does not fight back at any point, as you said.

We hear the officers at one point expressing an intent to hurt him. We then clearly see that they’re using a tremendous amount of force against this person who’s not fighting back. And we later hear the officers offering a justification or a set of justifications for their actions after the fact in ways that don’t really line up with what we see in the videos.

And finally, we see the police and these medics showing very little regard for Tyre Nichols’ injuries or his well-being despite the fact that he’s visibly and audibly in pain.

rick rojas

Right. Exactly. And that’s why so many of the people I’ve talked to said that they found the video as disturbing and as infuriating as the family made it out to be. And not just the brutality on display and the beating, but also what they saw is the callousness in the waiting around that came after.

michael barbaro

So I want to turn to how people in Memphis have reacted to this footage, given all the anxiety that was expressed by both city officials and Tyre Nichols’ family over what the reaction would look like.

(Video) Tyre Nichols' death, and a mother's pain

rick rojas

There was pain. There his anger. Many people in Memphis watched the footage, but there were also others that didn’t, that couldn’t. They felt that whatever they would learn wouldn’t be outweighed by the trauma they’d inflict by seeing something like this. And there were protests in Atlanta, New York, Los Angeles, Seattle, Washington DC. And in Memphis too. You had dozens come out on Friday night. They blocked off an interstate, and they closed off a bridge. But things wrapped up peacefully before too long. And it was sort of the same on Saturday, where it was a modest showing, but there were people that came out and demanded justice.

michael barbaro

Is there a sense that the way the city of Memphis has handled this case so far and what looks to be a real determination to get the wheels of justice in motion so quickly, that that may help explain why the reaction has been what it’s been, which is to say peaceful and to a degree, a little understated.

rick rojas

I think so. I mean, Ben Crump, the lawyer for the family, said at a press conference before the tape came out on Friday that this should the blueprint America, is what he said. He talked about how swiftly officials moved here to fire the officers, how swiftly they moved to bring criminal charges all in less than a month.

michael barbaro

Right. I’m curious. As we think about how people are reacting to this all, how folks are thinking about what has been really a central element of what happened to Tyree Nichols. And something that’s different about this case from a lot of the cases of alleged police brutality that we have focused on in this country, which is that he is a Black man who was allegedly killed by five Black police officers.

And as painfully familiar as we have become with Black men dying at the hands of the police, typically, in these cases that get a lot of attention, it’s been at the hands of White police officers. So we’re a little less prepared for all the officers to be Black. So how are people thinking about that, and how are they making sense of it?

rick rojas

It’s very complicated. One of the prevailing sentiments that I hear in Memphis is just this sense of sadness over all of this. One of my colleagues spoke to a woman who just she saw the photos of the officers on TV, and she was just disappointed. How could you do this, she asked. Memphis, it’s a majority Black city, and it has a majority Black police force. And the idea has been that if you have a police force whose demographics match those of the city, that it can make a difference. That it could make policing more effective. That it could really reduce the tensions that endure between the community and law enforcement.

michael barbaro

Right. And potentially prevent things like this from happening, what happened in this case.

rick rojas

Right. Right. And so this was an instance where that mode of thinking didn’t really bear out. And so what I hear from many of the people that you talk to here is that yes, there is a lot of anger and frustration directed at these five officers. But they see this as an indictment of a system and of a culture that surrounds policing, so that the race of the officers doesn’t actually make that much of a difference, that the divisions between the police and the community just still remain the same.

michael barbaro

Right. The question I think a lot of people are asking in the wake of what happened to Tyre Nichols is whether there’s something about policing, something fundamental that occurs when officers put on that uniform given the nature of modern policing, that somehow encourages brutality, especially toward Black people, but not just toward them, and regardless of the race of the officers.

rick rojas

Exactly. And that’s really what has made this so much more complicated.

michael barbaro

So Rick, what happens now in Memphis? What do we expect the next few weeks to look like in this case?

rick rojas

The mayor, the police chief have all committed to really digging in and examining how do you prevent something like this from happening and how do you build something better. And one of the first steps of that was on Saturday, the police chief said that she had disbanded the Scorpion Unit, the specialized group of which these five officers had been a part of.

And so there’s still the investigations about what actually happened at the scene. Those two medics who responded to the call and were seen not doing very much in the video, they were relieved of duty by the Fire Department, and there’s an investigation about whether they should be fired or face other consequences. Tyre Nichols’ family believes that they should be criminally charged.

Two sheriff deputies have also been relieved of duty as the Sheriff’s Department here tries to figure out what they were doing at the scene. There is a separate federal civil rights investigation that’s happening. And then there’s the case against the five officers who are charged with second degree murder. The prosecution is moving forward with them, and it could very well head to trial.

michael barbaro

Rick, have the five officers or lawyers for them said anything in their defense?

rick rojas

Well, the main thing is they’ve just pleaded with the public to avoid a rush to judgment. And they’ve made the case that the video does not tell you everything, and that the public should not base their opinions entirely upon what they see in that video. Just as we don’t know what initiated the stop, there may be other factors potentially, is what these lawyers are saying, that just aren’t reflected in the footage that we saw.

michael barbaro

Right. It strikes me that Memphis is about to go through what many cities in the US like Minneapolis, and Ferguson, and Baltimore have gone through after a case like this, which is, first, a trauma, right? A kind of collective trauma around an alleged case of police brutality that ends in the death of a Black man. And then a trial that very painfully relives it all.

rick rojas

Right. It’s going to be a long road. So when I talk to people in the community, there is this sense of skepticism that still really lingers because yes, there have been charges. There have been firings. There have been changes in police department policy. As Crump was saying, that there is this blueprint now. There is a blueprint, but it’s like the house isn’t built.

That’s the feeling. It’s that what happens with the trial? What happens ultimately with the Police Department? And what I hear, especially from people that are really invested in this case, they know that it’s going to take vigilance because it really is a long road ahead to get to the place where they want the city to be. And that’s with a better Police Department and with these officers being held accountable.

michael barbaro

Well, Rick, thank you very much.

rick rojas

Thank you.

michael barbaro

We’ll be right back.

Here’s what else you need to know today. On Sunday, violence erupted in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, where Israeli settlers carried out dozens of attacks against Palestinians and their property. It was the latest in a series of deadly clashes that began last Thursday when the Israeli military staged a raid in which 10 people were killed.

Israel said that the raid was a counterterrorism operation aimed at Islamic jihadists planning attacks against Israeli targets. The next day, a Palestinian gunmen killed seven people outside a synagogue in a Jewish settlement in East Jerusalem. Overall, at least 20 people have died over the past four days.

(Video) Tyre Nichols: Shock and anger in US over fatal police beating

Today’s episode was produced by Diana Nguyen, Mooj Zadie and Mary Wilson. It was edited by Anita Badejo with help from John Ketchum, Lisa Chow, and Paige Cowett. Contains original music by Marion Lozano and Elisheba Ittoop and was engineered by Chris Wood. Our theme music is by Jim Brunberg and Ben Landsverk of Wonderly.

That’s it for The Daily. I’m Michael Barbaro. See you tomorrow.


What was Tyre Nichols stopped for? ›

Police officers beat Nichols after a traffic stop, allegedly for reckless driving. The Associated Press reported this week that the officers never told Nichols the reason for the stop before they pulled him from his vehicle, shouted expletives and conflicting demands at him, chased him and beat him.

Was Tyre Nichols beaten by Memphis police officers? ›

(CNN) After five Memphis police officers brutally beat Tyre Nichols last month, one officer took two cell phone photos of the visibly injured 29-year-old Black man and texted one image to at least five people, newly revealed internal police department documents show.

Who was the officer involved in Tyre Nichols? ›

Years before Memphis police officer Demetrius Haley pulled Tyre Nichols from his car on 7 January, setting in motion a deadly confrontation, Haley was accused of taking part in the savage beating of an inmate at a county prison.

What were police charged with in Tyre Nichols death? ›

Five police officers were indicted by a grand jury in connection with the death of Nichols.They were each charged with second-degree murder, aggravated assault, and aggravated kidnapping, resulting in bodily injury, among other charges.

What were TYRE Sampson injuries? ›

The chief medical examiner determined Sampson's cause of death was "blunt force trauma," including several fractures and abrasions to his head, neck, and body.

What injuries did Tyre suffer from? ›

As per reports, he suffered a broken neck and cardiac arrest due to a violent confrontation. A photo provided by the family showed Nichols with a swollen eye and blood on his face.

Who were the officers who beat Tyre? ›

The officers named in the case — Emmitt Martin III, Desmond Mills Jr., Justin Smith, Demetrious Haley and Tadarrius Bean — are the same five officers who were fired in late January for beating Nichols so severely he eventually succumbed to his injuries and died in the hospital.

Who won the first battle of Memphis? ›

Union victory

Who won the second battle of Memphis? ›

Confederate victory

What is the story behind Tyre Nichols? ›

Tyre Nichols, a 29-year-old Black man, was beaten by Memphis police officers for roughly three minutes on the evening of Jan. 7, after he was stopped for what the police initially said was reckless driving. The stop escalated into a violent confrontation that ended with Mr. Nichols hospitalized in critical condition.

Why did the EMT get fired in Memphis? ›

He provided details about how he and another EMT, JaMichael Sandridge, responded after five Memphis police officers had punched, kicked and hit Nichols with a baton during an arrest following Nichols fleeing a traffic stop Jan. 7. Long and Sandridge were fired by the department Jan. 30.

Who are the five officers in Memphis? ›

Tadarrius Bean, Demetrius Haley, Desmond Mills Jr., Emmitt Martin III and Justin Smith made their first court appearances with their lawyers before a judge in Shelby County Criminal Court. The officers were fired after an internal police investigation into the Jan.

What were the 5 officers charged with in Memphis? ›

(CNN) Five Memphis police officers charged in the deadly police beating of Tyre Nichols last month are accused of assaulting another young Black man just three days prior, according to a federal lawsuit filed Tuesday.

What is official immunity? ›

Official immunity is a common law doctrine that protects public officers from personal liability for civil damages sustained from wrongs alleged to have been committed while acting in furtherance of their official duties.

What were the five former Memphis police officers charged with? ›

Tadarrius Bean, Demetrius Haley, Justin Smith, Emmitt Martin III and Desmond Mills Jr. were each indicted on one count of second-degree murder, aggravated assault, kidnapping, official oppression and two counts of official misconduct.

What caused TYRE death? ›

Tyre Nichols, the Black man who died two weeks ago after a confrontation with Memphis Police, suffered “extensive bleeding caused by a severe beating,” according to preliminary results of an autopsy commissioned by attorneys for his family.

What were TYRE Sampson last words? ›

Dodd said she wants the ride to be taken down permanently. She said it has been hard, but she has to stay strong for her other children. Dodd said the last thing Tyre said to her was: "I'll see you Saturday or Sunday."

Did TYRE Sampson suffer? ›

An autopsy showed that Tyre, a football player and honor roll student from the St. Louis area, suffered numerous broken bones and internal injuries in the fall, and his death by blunt force trauma was ruled an accident.

Who paid for Tyre Sampson funeral? ›

YK Osiris wanted to do the right thing when he offered to pay the funeral costs for Tyre Sampson, the 14-year-old who died after falling from the Orlando FreeFall ride. Now the rapper is aiming to clear his name after Sampson's family claimed he lied about making a donation to their fund.

How high did Tyre Sampson fall? ›

The Office of the Medical Examiner in Orange County has released the autopsy report for Tyre Sampson, the 14-year-old boy who fell to his death from the Free Fall ride at ICON Park in March. The report released Monday explains that Sampson died of blunt force trauma after a fall from more than 70 feet.

How did Tyre Sampson fall off the ride? ›

During the ride, Tyre slipped through that gap, according to a report. The firm, which was hired by the state to investigate the circumstances that led to Tyre's death, said in its report that he was “not properly secured in his seat primarily due to the mis-adjustment of the harness proximity sensor.”

Who is responsible for Tyre Sampson death? ›

Sampson's parents have filed a wrongful death lawsuit against the park, ride operator, and manufacturer, claiming it was negligence that caused their son to fall at least 100 feet from the drop-tower ride, which reaches speeds of 75 mph.

Who destroyed Tyre? ›

Captured and destroyed by the Muslim Mamlūks in 1291, the town never recovered its former importance. Excavations have uncovered remains of the Greco-Roman, Crusader, Arab, and Byzantine civilizations, but most of the remains of the Phoenician period lie beneath the present town.

How did Alexander destroy Tyre? ›

A half-mile-long spit of sand once linked the ancient Lebanese island of Tyre to the mainland, according to a new study of the area's geological history. Alexander used the natural sandbar to build a causeway, allowing his army to overwhelm the island stronghold during a siege in 332 BC.

What battle had the most soldier casualties? ›

The deadliest single-day battle in American history, if all engaged armies are considered, is the Battle of Antietam with 5,389 killed, including both United States and Confederate soldiers (total casualties for both sides was 22,717 dead, wounded, or missing Union and Confederate soldiers September 17, 1862).

What was the last Civil War battle in Mississippi? ›

The siege of Vicksburg (May 18 – July 4, 1863) was the final major military action in the Vicksburg campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S.

How many Union soldiers died in the battle of Memphis? ›

The battle ended mid-morning with all but one Confederate vessel destroyed. About 200 Confederates were killed or captured; Federal Col. Charles Ellet, gunboat commander, was the only Union casualty, dying of his wound two weeks later.

What battle won the Mississippi River? ›

A victory at the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, in 1863 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River in the American Civil War. Following the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862, General Ulysses S. Grant's Union army moved south.

Which Civil War battle won the Mississippi River? ›

Vicksburg National Military Park

The Confederate defeat at Vicksburg, and a second Union victory downriver at Port Hudson, Louisiana, ensured that the Union would have complete control of the Mississippi River. Lincoln reportedly referred to the successful Vicksburg campaign as "the key to the war."

Who won the first major battle? ›

Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops. It was a Confederate victory, followed by a disorganized retreat of the Union forces. First Battle of Bull Run. Chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1889.
First Battle of Bull Run.
DateJuly 21, 1861
ResultConfederate victory
1 more row

Who is TYRE Nichols biological father? ›

"Losing a son is the hardest thing I've ever done," shared Rodney Wells, Tyre Nichols' father. MEMPHIS, Tennessee — On Monday night, loved ones gathered for a prayer vigil in honor of Tyre Nichols. His father called for justice for his murdered son.

Where is TYRE Sampson now? ›

Tyre Sampson, 14, fell to his death from the Orlando FreeFall ride in March. ORLANDO, Fla.

What was the mole in Tyre? ›

Opening moves of the siege

Negotiations having failed, Alexander began his operations in January 332 BCE. After occupying old Tyre, he began to construct a causeway (or mole) across the channel toward the walls of Tyre, using rocks, timbers, and rubble taken from the buildings of the old city.

Why are EMTs paid so poorly? ›

There are other reasons EMS pay is so low. Certification is minimal — it only takes 120 to 150 hours of training to become an EMT (paramedics require significantly more). Ambulances in rural communities are often staffed by volunteers, which depresses wages for those who do pursue the role as a career.

Why are people quitting EMS? ›

The annual average EMT or paramedic salary is $37,600, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Top earners max out just under $60,000. Long hours and low pay are the leading factors that contribute to quitting EMS, Van Dusen said. Especially since there are other jobs with similar pay, minus the health risks.

Who is the oldest EMT? ›

View full sizeEric Schultz / The Huntsville TimesChuck MacCrone, 78, decided to become a paramedic after retiring as an engineer. HUNTSVILLE, AL -- Here is a man whose story has caused his 52-year-old daughter, his youngest child, to go back to college.

Who were the 5 black cops fired for sleeping with coworkers? ›

Hall, Lugo‐Perez, Powell, Shields and Sgt. Henry Ty McGowan were fired over the sexual relationships. Holladay, Magliocco and Officer Gavin Schoeberl were suspended.

What are the charges for the Memphis cops? ›

Five officers were fired and charged with second-degree murder, aggravated assault, aggravated kidnapping, official misconduct and official oppression. At least two additional officers were relieved of duty on Jan. 8 as the investigation got underway, according to the police department.

Who controls Memphis? ›

The City is governed by a mayor-council form of government that was put into place on Jan. 1, 1968, replacing a commission form of government that dated to 1909. The mayor is elected to four-year terms with a limit of two terms. The current mayor is Jim Strickland, elected in 2015.

Who started the Memphis riot? ›

The riot started after an alarm went out that African American soldiers from Fort Pickering, on the south boundary of downtown Memphis, had killed several policemen who tried to arrest a black soldier.

What do we know about the five Memphis police officers? ›

Nichols," said Davis, the police chief. The five officers — Tadarrius Bean, Demetrius Haley, Desmond Mills, Jr., Emmitt Martin III and Justin Smith — were fired on Jan. 20 and are now facing criminal charges including second-degree murder.

Who is Justin Smith Memphis? ›

Memphis Police officer Justin Smith was one of five officers fired Friday, Jan. 20, 2023. The department found the officers violated multiple policies in a traffic stop with 29-year-old Tyre Nichols.

What states have banned immune immunity? ›

Colorado, Connecticut, New Mexico, and New York City have either ended qualified immunity altogether or limited its application in court cases.

What states are getting rid of qualified immunity? ›

New Mexico is now the second state to ban qualified immunity, following Colorado which enacted legislation to end the practice in June 2020.

Does the US recognize sovereign immunity? ›

In the United States, sovereign immunity typically applies to the federal government and state government, but not to municipalities. Federal and state governments, however, have the ability to waive their sovereign immunity.

Who were the officers involved in TYRE Nichols? ›

The five former Memphis, Tennessee, police officers accused in the death of Tyre Nichols have pleaded not guilty to second-degree murder and other charges. Tadarrius Bean, Demetrius Haley, Emmitt Martin III, Desmond Mills Jr.

What did Justin Volpe do? ›

Justin Volpe is serving a 30-year sentence after pleading guilty to sodomizing Abner Louima with a stick in the bathroom of the 70th precinct station house in 1997.

What is the Scorpion Task Force? ›

Scorpion - which stands for "Street Crimes Operation to Restore Peace in Our Neighborhoods" - is a 50-person unit with the mission of bringing down crime levels in particular areas. Memphis Police said it would "permanently deactivate" the unit. This is not the first time the Scorpion unit has attracted controversy.

Did TYRE Sampson's family sue? ›

Yarnell Sampson, the teen's father, and Tyre's mother filed a lawsuit in April suing several companies, including the Slingshot Group and Funtime Thrill Rides, the manufacturer.

What did TYRE Sampson do? ›

Autopsy reveals Tyre Sampson's cause of death after 14-year-old fell from Florida amusement park. Tyre Sampson, 14, slipped out of his seat about halfway down the ride that drops riders nearly 120 metres at speeds over 120km/h.

Why did Alexander destroy Tyre? ›

It is said that Alexander was so enraged at the Tyrians' defence of their city and the loss of his men that he destroyed half the city. According to Arrian, 8,000 Tyrian civilians were massacred after the city fell.

What happened at Tyre? ›

After the town's capture, 10,000 inhabitants were put to death, and 30,000 were sold into slavery. Alexander's causeway, which was never removed, converted the island into a peninsula. Tyre was subsequently under the influence of Ptolemaic Egypt and in 200 became part of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom.


1. Tyre Nichols death: Footage released from deadly beating by police officers
(The Times and The Sunday Times)
2. 'Why did you beat Tyre Nichols to death?'
(Sky News)
3. Tyre Nichols' Death: Chilling bodycam footage | Timeline of fatal police encounter
(Hindustan Times)
4. Tyre Nichols death: What to know
(FOX 9 Minneapolis-St. Paul)
5. Tyre Nichols videos show what happened in fatal Memphis traffic stop beating
(KTLA 5)
6. Videos show brutal police beating leading to Tyre Nichols' death
(NBC News)


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